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Stabilizing Effects of a Particulate Demineralized Bone Matrix in the L4 Interbody Space with and Without PEEK Cage – A Literature Review and Preliminary Results of a Cadaveric Biomechanical Study

Scientific Paper

Bruce C1, Chin KR2, Cumming V3, Crawford NR4.

Interested medical professionals can read through the full paper, also published the West Indian Medical Journal, here.


We reviewed the biological elements supporting the usefulness of a specifically designed particulate form of demineralized bone matrix (DBM) with spinal fusion, and report some limitations of its use described in the medical literature and in the interbody space using a cadaveric biomechanical model. A literature review and description of the techniques used to augment spinal fusion are presented, including a more thorough review of recent findings of cadaveric biomechanical flexibility studies using DBM alone at different percentage fills of the existing disc space and DBM with a polyetheretherketone (PEEK) interbody cage. The need for DBM was established by reviewing limitations of autografts and allografts in spinal fusion. Demineralized bone matrix used alone did not increase stability post discectomy at L4-L5, but was demonstrated to exhibit satisfactory stability when used with a PEEK interbody cage. There may be a future role for DBM that hardens and fills disc space more rigidly, overcoming this limitation to its use.


Dr. Kingsley R. Chin, Founder of philosophy and practice of The LES Society and The LESS Institute

Dr. Kingsley R. Chin is a board-certified Harvard-trained Orthopedic Spine Surgeon and Professor with copious business and information technology exposure. He sees a niche opportunity where medicine, business and info. tech meet – and is uniquely educated at the intersection of these three professions. He has experience as Professor of Clinical Biomedical Sciences & Admissions Committee Member at the Charles E. Schmidt College of Medicine at Florida Atlantic University, Professor of Clinical Orthopedic Surgery at the Herbert Wertheim College of Medicine at Florida International University, Assistant Professor of Orthopaedics at the University of Pennsylvania Medical School, Visiting Spine Surgeon & Professor at the University of the West Indies, Mona, and Adjunct Professor of Clinical Biomedical Sciences at the University of Technology, Jamaica.

Learn more about Dr. Chin here and connect via LinkedIn.


Less Exposure Surgery (LES) is based on a new philosophy of performing surgery, leading the charge to prove through bench and clinical outcomes research that LES treatment options are the best solutions – to lowering the cost of healthcare, improving outcomes and increasing patient satisfaction. Learn more at LESSociety.org.

The LES Society philosophy: “Tailor treatment to the individual aiding in the quickest recovery and return to a pain-free lifestyle, using LES® techniques that lessen exposure, preserve unoffending anatomy and utilize new technologies which are safe, easy to adopt and reproducible. These LES®techniques lessen blood loss, surgical time and exposure to radiation and can be safely performed in an outpatient center. Less is more.” – Kingsley R. Chin, MD


The LESS Institute is the world leader center of excellence in Less Exposure Surgery. Our safe, effective outpatient treatments help patients recover quickly, avoid expensive hospital stays and return home to their family the same day. Watch our patient stories, follow us on Facebook and visit TheLESSInstitute.com to learn more.


The above study utilized LES Technology from SpineFrontier – leading provider of LES Technologies and instruments – offering surgeons and patients superior technology and services.



Bruce C1, Chin KR2, Cumming V3, Crawford NR4.

Author information

  1. Department of Surgery, Radiology, Anaesthesia and Intensive Care, The University of the West Indies, Kingston 7, Jamaica.

  2. Charles E Schmidt College of Medicine at Florida Atlantic University and the Less Exposure Surgeons Surgery Institute (LESS Institute), Fort Lauderdale, FL, USA. [email protected]

  3. Less Exposure Surgery Society, Fort Lauderdale, FL, USA.4Barrow Neurological Institute, St Joseph’s Hospital and Medical Center, Phoenix, AZ, USA.

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