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Soft Tissue Swelling Incidence Using Demineralized Bone Matrix in the Outpatient Setting

Scientific Paper

Chin KR1, Pencle FJR2, Seale JA3, Valdivia JM3.

Interested medical professionals can read through the full paper, published in the Journal of the AAOS, here.


To assess use of demineralized bone matrix (DBM) use in anterior cervical discectomy and fusion (ACDF) in outpatient setting.


One hundred and forty-five patients with prospectively collected data undergoing single and two level ACDF with DBM packed within and anterior to polyetheretherketone (PEEK) cages. Two groups created, Group 1 (75) outpatients and control Group 2 (70) hospital patients. Prevertebral soft tissue swelling (PVSTS) was measured anterior to C2 and C6 on plain lateral cervical radiographs preoperatively and one week postoperatively and fusion assessed at two years.


There was no intergroup significance between preoperative and postoperative visual analogue scales (VAS) and neck disability index (NDI) scores between Group 1 and 2. Mean preoperative PVSTS in Group 1 was 4.7 ± 0.2 mm at C2 level and 11.1 ± 0.5 at C6 level compared to Group 2 mean PVSTS of 4.5 ± 0.5 mm and 12.8 ± 0.5, P = 0.172 and 0.127 respectively. There was no radiographic or clinical evidence of adverse reaction noted. In Group 1 mean postoperative PVSTS was 5.5 ± 0.4 mm at C2 and 14.9 ± 0.6 mm at C6 compared Group 2 mean PVSTS was 4.9 ± 0.3 mm at C2 and 14.8 ± 0.5 mm at C6, P = 0.212 and 0.946 respectively. No significant increase in prevertebral soft tissue space at C2 and C6 level demonstrated.

Preoperative radiograph showing retropharyngeal/prevertebral soft tissue at the level of C2 vertebral body and at the level of C6 vertebral body.


ACDF with adjunct DBM packed PEEK cages showed a statistical significant intragroup improvement in VAS neck pain scores and NDI scores (P = 0.001). There were no reported serious patient complications; post-operative radiographs demonstrated no significant difference in prevertebral space. We conclude that ACDF with DBM-packed PEEK cages can be safely done in an ASC with satisfactory outcomes.


Dr. Kingsley R. Chin is a board-certified Harvard-trained Orthopedic Spine Surgeon and Professor with copious business and information technology exposure. He sees a niche opportunity where medicine, business and info. tech meet – and is uniquely educated at the intersection of these three professions. He has experience as Professor of Clinical Biomedical Sciences & Admissions Committee Member at the Charles E. Schmidt College of Medicine at Florida Atlantic University, Professor of Clinical Orthopedic Surgery at the Herbert Wertheim College of Medicine at Florida International University, Assistant Professor of Orthopaedics at the University of Pennsylvania Medical School, Visiting Spine Surgeon & Professor at the University of the West Indies, Mona, and Adjunct Professor of Clinical Biomedical Sciences at the University of Technology, Jamaica.

Learn more about Dr. Chin here and connect via LinkedIn.


Less Exposure Surgery (LES) is based on a new philosophy of performing surgery, leading the charge to prove through bench and clinical outcomes research that LES treatment options are the best solutions – to lowering the cost of healthcare, improving outcomes and increasing patient satisfaction. Learn more at LESSociety.org.

The LES Society philosophy: “Tailor treatment to the individual aiding in the quickest recovery and return to a pain-free lifestyle, using LES® techniques that lessen exposure, preserve unoffending anatomy and utilize new technologies which are safe, easy to adopt and reproducible. These LES®techniques lessen blood loss, surgical time and exposure to radiation and can be safely performed in an outpatient center. Less is more.” – Kingsley R. Chin, MD


The LESS Institute is the world leader center of excellence in Less Exposure Surgery. Our safe, effective outpatient treatments help patients recover quickly, avoid expensive hospital stays and return home to their family the same day. Watch our patient stories, follow us on Facebook and visit TheLESSInstitute.com to learn more.


The above study utilized LES Technology from SpineFrontier – leading provider of LES Technologies and instruments – offering surgeons and patients superior technology and services.



Chin KR1, Pencle FJR2, Seale JA3, Valdivia JM3.

Author information

  • Charles E. Schmidt College of Medicine at Florida Atlantic University, Boca Raton, FL 33431, United States.
  • Less Exposure Surgery Society, Malden, MA 02148, United States. [email protected]
  • Less Exposure Surgery Specialists Institute, Fort Lauderdale, FL 33311, United States.
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