Sentinel Sign in Standalone Anterior Cervical Fusion: Outcomes and Fusion Rate

By Dr. Kingsley Chin


Scientific Paper

Kingsley R. Chin, Fabio J.R. Pencle, Luai M. Mustafa, Moawiah M. Mustafa, Amala Benny, Jason A. Seale

Interested medical professionals can read through the full paper, as published in the Journal of Orthopaedics, here.


The authors aim to demonstrate the feasibility, outcomes and fusion rate of a standalone PEEK cage in the outpatient setting.


48 consecutive patients undergoing standalone ACDF (S-ACDF) (Group 1) were compared to control group of 49 patients who had ACDF with ACP (Group 2).


Analysis of follow-up at the one year period postoperative outcomes between groups 1 and 2 demonstrated no intergroup statistical significant difference in VAS neck, arm and NDI scores p = 0.414, 0.06 and p = 0.328 respectively.


We conclude that S-ACDF can be safely done in an ambulatory surgery center with satisfactory clinical and patient-reported outcomes.


Dr. Kingsley R. Chin, Founder of philosophy and practice of The LES Society and The LESS Institute

About Author Dr. Kingsley R. Chin

Dr. Kingsley R. Chin, Founder of philosophy and practice of The LES Society and The LESS Institute

Dr. Kingsley R. Chin is a board certified Harvard-trained orthopedic spine surgeon and professor with copious business and information technology exposure. He sees a niche opportunity where medicine, business and info. tech meet – and is uniquely educated at the intersection of these three professions. He has experience as Professor of Clinical Biomedical Sciences & Admissions Committee Member at the Charles E. Schmidt College of Medicine at Florida Atlantic University, Professor of Clinical Orthopedic Surgery at the Herbert Wertheim College of Medicine at Florida International University, Assistant Professor of Orthopaedics at the University of Pennsylvania Medical School, VisitingSpine Surgeon & Professor at the University of the West Indies, Mona, and Adjunct Professor of Clinical Biomedical Studies at the University of Technology, Jamaica.

Learn more about Dr. Chin here and connect via LinkedIn.

About Less Exposure Surgery

Less Exposure Surgery (LES) is based on a new philosophy of performing surgery, leading the charge to prove through bench and clinical outcomes research that LES treatment options are the best solutions – to lowering the cost of healthcare, improving outcomes and increasing patient satisfaction. Learn more at

The LES Society philosophy: “Tailor treatment to the individual aiding in the quickest recovery and return to a pain-free lifestyle, using LES® techniques that lessen exposure, preserve unoffending anatomy and utilize new technologies which are safe, easy to adopt and reproducible. These LES®techniques lessen blood loss, surgical time and exposure to radiation and can be safely performed in an outpatient center. Less is more.” – Kingsley R. Chin, MD

About The LESS Institute

The LESS Institute is the world leader center of excellence in Less Exposure Surgery. Our safe, effective outpatient treatments help patients recover quickly, avoid expensive hospital stays and return home to their family the same day. Watch our patient stories, follow us on Facebook and visit to learn more.

Scientific Paper Author & Citation Details


Kingsley R. Chinabcd, Fabio J.R. Penclee, Luai M. Mustafab, Moawiah M. Mustafab, Amala Bennyae, Jason A. Sealeae

Author information

a. Less Exposure Surgery Specialists Institute (LESS Institute), United States
a. Less Exposure Surgery Specialists Institute (LESS Institute) USA
b. Herbert Wertheim College of Medicine at Florida International University, USA
c. Charles E. Schmidt College of Medicine at Florida Atlantic University, USA
d. University of Technology, Jamaica
e. Less Exposure Surgery (LES) Society, USA